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银杏 Ginkgo biloba Linnaeus

目前为止,中国西南野生生物种质资源库共保藏该物种: 种子5份; DNA材料8份;

  • 科:银杏科    Ginkgoaceae
  • 属:银杏属    Ginkgo
  • 种:银杏   Ginkgo biloba

1形状描述

1. Ginkgo biloba Linnaeus, Mant. Pl. 2: 313. 1771. 银杏 yin xing Salisburia adiantifolia Smith; S. biloba (Linnaeus) Hoffmansegg.Trees to 40 m tall; trunk to 4 m d.b.h.; bark light gray or grayish brown, longitudinally fissured especially on old trees; crown conical initially, finally broadly ovoid; long branchlets pale brownish yellow initially, finally gray, internodes (1-) 1.5-4 cm; short branchlets blackish gray, with dense, irregularly elliptic leaf scars; winter buds yellowish brown, ovate. Leaves with petiole (3-)5-8(-10) cm; blade pale green, turning bright yellow in autumn, to 13 × 8(-15) cm on young trees but usually 5-8 cm wide, those on long branchlets divided by a deep, apical sinus into 2 lobes each further dissected, those on short branchlets with undulate distal and margin notched apex. Pollen cones ivory colored, 1.2-2.2 cm; pollen sacs boat-shaped, with widely gaping slit. Seeds elliptic, narrowly obovoid, ovoid, or subglobose, 2.5-3.5 × 1.6-2.2 cm; sarcotesta yellow, or orange-yellow glaucous, with rancid odor when ripe; sclerotesta white, with 2 or 3 longitudinal ridges; endotesta pale reddish brown. Pollination Mar-Apr, seed maturity Sep-Oct.* Scattered in broad-leaved forests and valleys on acidic, well-drained, yellow loess (pH = 5-5.5); 300-1100 m. Perhaps native in NW Zhejiang (Tianmu Shan); widely and long cultivated below 2000 m in Anhui, Fujian, Gansu, Guizhou, Henan, Hebei, Hubei, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan, Yunnan.A relict species of the Mesozoic era, this and other (extinct) species of Ginkgo were formerly widespread throughout the world. The atavistic, leaf-marginal seeds of one cultivated clone may suggest an affinity with the extinct pteridosperms. Ginkgo biloba is now a rare species in the wild, but has been widely cultivated as an ornamental, probably for more than 3000 years. It provides shade and is tolerant of a wide range of climatic and edaphic conditions, including pollution. It is sacred to Buddhists and is often planted near temples. The wood is used in furniture making, the leaves are medicinal and used for pesticides, the roots are used as a cure for leucorrhea, the seeds are edible, and the bark yields tannin.【引自:Flora of China】

2分布信息

采集编号 国家 区县 详情
TianXH797 中国 陕西省 安康市 白河县 详细
TangXS0323 中国 安徽省 黄山市 黄山区 详细
ZXX18394 中国 河南省 信阳市 浉河区 详细
TanCM3564 中国 江西省 九江市 庐山区 详细
SCSB-HN-0761 中国 湖南省 长沙市 长沙县 详细
XPALSC526 中国 云南省 玉溪市 新平彝族傣族自治县 详细
CaoChQ209 中国 辽宁省 丹东市 详细

3种子保藏信息

采集编号 采集单位 项目 采集年份 重量(g) 详情
TangXS0323 黄山学院_唐鑫生 高校合作 2011 详细
TanCM3564 九江森林植物标本馆_谭策铭 高校合作 2018 详细
SCSB-HN-0761 湖南师范大学生命科学学院_刘克明 平台项目 2007 详细
XPALSC526 云南哀牢山国家级自然保护区新平管理局_张宏雨 保护区合作 2009 详细
CaoChQ209 白山市林业科学院_曹长清 捐赠种子 2017 详细
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  • 创建者:种质资源库
  • 最近更新:2022年6月24日