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银杏 Ginkgo biloba Linnaeus

目前为止,中国西南野生生物种质资源库共保藏该物种: 种子4份; DNA材料6份;

  • 科:银杏科    Ginkgoaceae
  • 属:银杏属    Ginkgo
  • 种:银杏   Ginkgo biloba


1. Ginkgo biloba Linnaeus, Mant. Pl. 2: 313. 1771. 银杏 yin xing Salisburia adiantifolia Smith; S. biloba (Linnaeus) Hoffmansegg.Trees to 40 m tall; trunk to 4 m d.b.h.; bark light gray or grayish brown, longitudinally fissured especially on old trees; crown conical initially, finally broadly ovoid; long branchlets pale brownish yellow initially, finally gray, internodes (1-) 1.5-4 cm; short branchlets blackish gray, with dense, irregularly elliptic leaf scars; winter buds yellowish brown, ovate. Leaves with petiole (3-)5-8(-10) cm; blade pale green, turning bright yellow in autumn, to 13 × 8(-15) cm on young trees but usually 5-8 cm wide, those on long branchlets divided by a deep, apical sinus into 2 lobes each further dissected, those on short branchlets with undulate distal and margin notched apex. Pollen cones ivory colored, 1.2-2.2 cm; pollen sacs boat-shaped, with widely gaping slit. Seeds elliptic, narrowly obovoid, ovoid, or subglobose, 2.5-3.5 × 1.6-2.2 cm; sarcotesta yellow, or orange-yellow glaucous, with rancid odor when ripe; sclerotesta white, with 2 or 3 longitudinal ridges; endotesta pale reddish brown. Pollination Mar-Apr, seed maturity Sep-Oct.* Scattered in broad-leaved forests and valleys on acidic, well-drained, yellow loess (pH = 5-5.5); 300-1100 m. Perhaps native in NW Zhejiang (Tianmu Shan); widely and long cultivated below 2000 m in Anhui, Fujian, Gansu, Guizhou, Henan, Hebei, Hubei, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan, Yunnan.A relict species of the Mesozoic era, this and other (extinct) species of Ginkgo were formerly widespread throughout the world. The atavistic, leaf-marginal seeds of one cultivated clone may suggest an affinity with the extinct pteridosperms. Ginkgo biloba is now a rare species in the wild, but has been widely cultivated as an ornamental, probably for more than 3000 years. It provides shade and is tolerant of a wide range of climatic and edaphic conditions, including pollution. It is sacred to Buddhists and is often planted near temples. The wood is used in furniture making, the leaves are medicinal and used for pesticides, the roots are used as a cure for leucorrhea, the seeds are edible, and the bark yields tannin.【引自:Flora of China】


采集编号 国家 区县 详情
CaoChQ209 中国 辽宁 丹东 详细
TangXS0323 中国 安徽 黄山 黄山 详细
SCSB-HN-0761 中国 湖南 长沙 长沙 详细
XPALSC526 中国 云南 玉溪 新平 详细
ZXX18394 中国 河南 信阳 浉河 详细
TianXH797 中国 陕西 安康 白河 详细


采集编号 采集单位 项目 采集年份 重量(g) 详情
CaoChQ209 白山市林业科学院 捐赠种子 2017 详细
TangXS0323 黄山学院 高校合作 2011 详细
SCSB-HN-0761 湖南师范大学 平台项目 2007 详细
XPALSC526 云南哀牢山国家级自然保护区新平管理局 保护区合作 2009 详细
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  • 创建者:种质资源库
  • 最近更新:2024年5月17日